The quick-fix guide to Slackware Package Management.3

In order to create a Slackware package, you will need to have the binary files for the package you want to create. Obviously this means you will need to either have the binary files already available in your system, or you will have to build the binary files from the source files. Here are the steps you need to follow to create a Slackware package:

create a directory tree
copy all the files related to the package into the appropriate directories in the directory tree.
run makepkg to create the Slackware package.

I would advice you to create a directory where you will keep your Slackware packages. For instance, something like /slackpack. This is where you will create your directory tree. /slackpack will simple contain the location on where the files in the package you are creating will be installed. For instance, foo.tgz will install the binary file foo in /usr/local/bin and a configuration file foorc in /usr/local/etc. Therefore, /slackpack will contain the following directories: Read the rest of this entry »

 Introduction to Linux Kernel Modules.3

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When the linux kernel discovers the need for a module, the kernel request to the kernel daemon ( kerneld) to load the appropriate module. Let’s take an example: we are going to mount a NTFS partition in the Linux system. If the NTFS filesystem support is not statically implemented in the kernel (but compiled as a module), the kernel daemon will search for the appropriate module and load it from the repository. Then the parition is mounted for the use. Let’s go into deep of the action of the kernel daemon (kerneld). The kerneld is the normal user process having the th exclusive superuser privileges. At the time of the booting, kerneld open the IPC channel to the kernel and uses it for transfering messages (request for loading modules) to and from the kernel. Read the rest of this entry »

 Introduction to Linux Kernel Modules.2

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/* Simple Linux Kernel Module feb’2000 */


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 The quick-fix guide to Slackware Package Management.2

Installpkg installs Slackware packages just like pkgtool does, except it does it on the fly without you needing to choose from menus. The basic usage command is:

root# installpkg foo.tgz

This command will install foo.tgz into your system. However, newer files in the package will overwrite older files existing on your system. You will want to make note of what files will be installed on your system. This can be done by passing the -warn option. With the -warn option, installpkg will generate a report on what files will be installed, and you can then cross- reference to see if you have any existing files already on your system. Here’s a short example: Read the rest of this entry »

 Bangla in GNU/Linux : making the Penguin speak in Bengali.3

Ankur (the Gnome Translation Project has been named as such by Dr K Ghosh) is working toward supporting Bangla(Bengali) language on GNU/Linux operating system. A majority of the projects are focused on’s Xserver, however some are also platform independent and adds supports of other operating systems. Ankur project has as its primary goals the following:

1. Translate popular and major XServer applications
2. Providing Bangla support for some major XServer applications such as office suites, database, development tools and desktop environments like GNOME,KDE. The aim/intention is to help develop and maintain open source/free software targeted towards the Bangla speaking users.
3. Create awareness among Bangla speaking computer users .
4. Content creation with the aim of educating people about GNU/Linux and FLOSS movement.

On 02/02/2003, the project team released bspeller-0.4 Ankur is also involved in the Bengali Dictionary Project. Kaushik Ghose outlines the aims of this project as:

1. Bangla dictionary
2. Webpage interface to bangla dictionary
3. CD version or an offline version of web interface
4. Various converters to turn bangla dictionary into say ISCII, higher ASCII for display in other fonts
5. Various interface programs a) a dictionary GUI, b) a command-line version of the GUI (can act as spellchecker for other programs)

‘Progga’ states that the project is in need of volunteers so as to attain the deadline of August, 2003 (when Gnome v2.4 is scheduled to be released). Till date, approximately 30% of the project has been completed. The translation project is one of the first ‘team-oriented’ project of Ankur and is based on the Open Source Software development model. The current volunteer strength is around 10, with profiles varied across all levels. The project allows volunteers to download files, after duly notifying others using the mailing list. After completing either partially or fully, the files are posted for peer review. These are generally reviewed once and then committed to the CVS. However, in Progga’s opinion one of the major constraints to a successful completion of such a distributed project is the lack of publicity as well as the low level of motivation of the volunteers, especially Bengalis. And he states that more often than not there have been cases of people who after exhibiting initial interest have just disappeared. While this in some cases can be rationalized as to the cutting-edge technology used, in others it can be attributed to being daunted by the task at hand. Conclusions

Localization projects must follow the bazaar model of distributed development. While the robustness and the stability of this model is well established in various successful implementations, the localization and more specifically the Translation project suffers form the lack of a firmly established command and control structure. The project, till recently, was lacking a common ‘word pool’ for words that need to be part of translated strings on a regular basis. The peer review cycle along with the existing model needs to be modified and re-structured so as to ensure that the translations are consistent in quality. As is the need to create a localized set that is encapsulates the dialects and semantics of the common populace. However, these difficulties are the part of any such project. Given that within a span of 2 months more than 25% of the translation has been completed, it might not be too much ambitious to say that we can be sure to see this group meet their deadline. Till then we will be wishing them all the best. References & Links:

* Bangla Penguin Project:
* Bangla Gnome Translation Project - Ankur:
* Deepayan Sarkar’s page on archive of Bengali Documents on the Internet:
* Free Banglafonts Project:
* Kaushik Ghose:
* Progga:
* Sayamindu DasGupta’s homepage:
* Indian Linux Users Group - Kolkata Chapter:
* Prof.Venkatesh Hariharan is with the Indian Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore. He can be reached

Sankarshan Mukhopadhyay is a Free Software enthusiast and a member of the Indian Linux Users Group-Kolkata Chapter His blog ‘Random Thoughts’ is at He can be reached at

 Bangla in GNU/Linux : making the Penguin speak in Bengali.2

On GNU/Linux, the Free type library has implemented Open Type Layout features, and the rapidly developing Pango project is trying to deal with other internationalization issues. Although the Pango rendering engine which handles all text rendering in the GTk2/Gnome2 environment) has a module for rendering bangla, open source browsers like Mozilla still do not possess support for Bangla rendering. This combination is already in working condition on recent distributions, though none of the more popular browsers use this technology yet. A completely independent implementation is in the Unicode Text editor Yudit, available for both Linux and Windows. Even with a layout engine that implements open type layout features, an open type Bengali font is required before one can view Bengali text. Several efforts have started recently with the aim of creating free Bengali open type fonts, and are available from the Free Bangla Fonts project The Free Bangla Fonts Project

The Free Bangla Fonts Project - a volunteer run collaborative model based project dedicated towards creating Free, high quality, completely Unicode compliant Open Type Bengali fonts. The project positions itself as the central resource for getting and developing Free Bangla fonts. The initial aim of this project is to release a full set of Bangla fonts that supports all the major Bangla Yuktakshars conjuncts). The Akaash set of fonts (with more than 650 glyphs) aims to be such a set. The project also plans for a conversion of other existing Free Bangla (non Unicode compliant) fonts into Unicode compliant Bengali Open Type fonts.Currently the team is working on four sets of fonts. Sayamindu Dasgupta is developing the Akaash set. This set will be having three OTFs, AkaashNormal.ttf, AkaashWide.ttf and AkaashSlanted.ttf. Dr. Anirban Mitra is developing the Ani set. It has two fonts, Ani.ttf and Mitra.ttf. The Mitra font is a monospaced font, which is useful in certain specialized applications. Dr. Mitra is also developing the Mukti set of fonts (which uses the glyphs donated by Cyberscape Multimedia Limited, Mumbai). This set has four fonts, MuktiRegular.ttf, MuktiBold.ttf, MuktiNarrow.ttf, and MuktiNarrowBold.ttf. Deepayan Sarkar is developing the Likhan set of fonts. Taneem Ahmed has packaged all the fonts under development in the project into a RPM file for RedHat 8.0. Bangla Innovative Open Source(BIOS)

BIOS is the brainchild of a band of programmers and students with the aim of utilizing the open source aspect of GNU/Linux to take computing to the masses. Based on a distributed collaborative model of project management, BIOS aims to create:

1. Bengali Open Office - full featured, open source Bengali office suite
2. Bengali database - Bengali Unicode based implementation of database
3. Bengali Speech application - Open Source speech recognition and text-to-speech application

BIOS believes that the prevalent standard interfaces in English form a barrier to taking computing power to all levels of society. The licensing format under which GNU/Linux is available makes it an ideal content delivery medium for grassroots level social programs as well as educational content delivery platform. Thus it aims to create a ‘Bangla’ interface for both the graphical (or X) and text modes. Such an effort will make it economically feasible to install computers at village levels, thus ushering in a knowledge-based economy built on community-based knowledge sharing platform. Bangla Gnome Translation Project - Ankur

 Ubuntu Linux ported to the NOOKcolor

Not content to simply root your NOOKcolor eBook Reader and run vanilla Android on it? How about Ubuntu Linux?

Xda-developers forum member devastatorx has posted step by step instructions for convincing your NOOKcolor to boot an Ubuntu image stored on an SD card.

The process doesn’t actually replace Android with Ubuntu, but rather allows you to boot into the operating system using an Android VNC app. So when you’re done, you can just shut down the VNC client.
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 Luminant Awards Three $5,000 Grants for Winning Essays

Students at three Texas schools did more than learn this fall, they also won their school a $5,000 grant as 2010 Luminant Scholar Program grand prize winners.

Out of 31 participating school districts, Belton ISD’s Tarver Elementary School, Lexington ISD’s Lexington Elementary School and Stephenville’s Gilbert Intermediate School were selected as grant recipients based on their students’ motivational environmental essays.

The Luminant Scholar essay contest challenged fifth-grade students in select Texas public schools districts to write one-page essays capturing the theme, “How can I help protect the environment?” One winning student from each school district was awarded a $1,000 United States Savings Bond for their inspiring ideas, making their school eligible to win the grand prize.
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 GoAhead Software joins the Linux Foundation

Linux Foundation Logo The Linux Foundation has announced that GoAhead Software has become its newest member. Based in Bellevue, Washington, GoAhead Software is a global commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions specialist targeting network equipment manufacturers. Discussing the announcement, GoAhead Sales and Marketing Senior VP Bill Yaman said, “Linux has become the primary operating system in the telecommunications market. An increasing number of our customers use it in their network equipment and systems.”

GoAhead Logo To date, the company’s solutions are used in more than 65,000 deployments and its customers include Alcatel-Lucent, Lockheed Martin, Motorola and Northrop Grumman. “Our Linux Foundation membership will help us to actively participate in the collaborative development model and advance both our company strategy as well as Linux overall,” added Yaman.
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 Different Linux penguin

apache linux apache linux bxl linux bxl linux
lsap linux lsap linux marinha linux marinha linux

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